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Preview Material for Exam 1 - Fall 2009
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Use a #2 pencil to fill in the information on your NCS answer sheet.  Put your O-Key Account Username in the boxes indicated for LAST NAME and darken the appropriate circles. Write your Name (Last, First) and Star in the space above the boxes containing your O-Key Account Username. Darken the (S) in the last column of the name circles. Enter the number 931 and darken the corresponding circles in the first 3 columns of the “Student ID.” Failure to perform this correctly will incur a -10pt handling fee. Read all questions and answers carefully before choosing the single BEST response for each question. Feel free to ask the instructor for clarification.

Robert Richards is a lepidopterist (He studies butterflies.) and has decided to conduct a research project on butterflies found in the area. He hypothesizes that he will catch a greater number of butterflies in warmer temperatures than in colder temperatures because butterflies are more active in warmer temperatures.  The following is a table of raw data he has collected on the types of butterflies he is able to catch at different times of the day:


Type of Butterfly

Number of Butterflies Captured at 33°C

Number of Butterflies Captured at 25°C













Robert starts to notice as weeks go by that he is capturing fewer Monarch Butterflies each week and more Swallowtail butterflies. He wants to know why there are changes in the number of butterflies he is capturing.

On a recent trip to the Andes Mountains of South America Dr. Flora took pictures of several hummingbirds and flowers. She noticed that certain flowers are very bright and oddly shaped and that only hummingbirds feed from them.  She notices that when a hummingbird approaches the flower to drink nectar the movement of the hummingbird causes pollen to drop on the head and back of the hummingbird who now acts as a pollinator for the plant. When Dr. Flora returns from her trip she reads that hummingbirds have a very weak sense of smell, but can see very well, especially red colors.





Eccentric  Aunt Felina collects the most exotic breeds of cats she can find. Two of her most prized pets include Paris, a fluffy white Persian and Isis, a hairless Sphynx with prominent ears. Both cats are about the same age and weight. On a very hot day, Paris spends a great deal of time in the yard.  As a result Aunt Felina observes that Paris’ tongue is hanging out—panting!

graph source: Peto et al. British Medical Journal 321:323-329 (2000)

The graph above depicts a study of the cumulative (%) risks of developing lung cancer at various ages within certain groups of people: The solid line at the very top indicates the cancer risk for people who have smoked continuously; the dashed line at the very bottom depicts the risk for lifelong non-smokers; the 4 lines between the bottom and top lines indicate those smokers who quit the habit at progressively higher ages (from bottom to top).



Mike Gastro is a snail farmer. He raises snails in his backyard. Restaurants pay him more for large snails than for small snails, so Mike is interested in understanding why some snails are larger than other snails. After observing the snails he came up with the hypothesis that snails grow larger when they live in an environment that is warmer than 22°C. Mike plans an experiment in which he will place some newly hatched snails in a container kept at 24°C and the same number of newly hatched snails in a container kept at 20°C. For his experiment Mike placed 200 newly hatched black snails in a container kept at 24°C and 200 newly hatched white snails in a container kept at 20°C.  Both containers had the same amount of snail food. After 4 weeks Mike collected the snails and measured them. The black snails that were held at 24°C were on average 11 mm long and the white snails held at 20°C were on average 8 mm long.







Pat owns a ferret, which is a small, elongated member of the weasel family of mammals, named Slinky.  One day, while Pat was enjoying an alcohol-containing carbonated beverage, a neighbor called and invited Pat out.  When Pat placed the beverage in the refrigerator to stay cold, Slinky snuck past and got locked in the refrigerator, which is below Slinky’s lower critical temperature by a few degrees.  After a few minutes, Slinky tore open the tuna fish package and then consumed part of the beverage Pat had placed in the refrigerator.  After a few hours, Pat returned home.  Thirsty from the afternoon’s activities, Pat went immediately to the refrigerator for the beverage that had been left behind and discovered Slinky as he slumped out of the refrigerator.  After some time on his blanket and a stern lecture, Slinky was back to his former active self.

A family of mice leaves a field that has been ravaged by fire and tries to find new homes at a university. The first mouse, Gus, tries living at a fraternity house. Unfortunately, Gus falls into a cooler filled with ice-cold water (0° C).  The thermal neutral zone of a mouse in water is between 10° C-27° C. Another mouse, Stuart, decides to live in the chemistry building where he unfortunately ate a chemical containing arsenite. Arsenite prevents pyruvate from entering the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle).  A third mouse, Minnie, also decided to live in the chemistry building but ate dinitrophenol, which makes the inner mitochondrial membrane leaky to protons (H+ ).  Another mouse, Mighty, tries to live in the botany department.  Mighty eats apple seeds that contain cyanide.  Cyanide attaches to a component in the electron transport chain preventing it from passing along electrons.  During an exceptionally cold day, a few biology students measured the temperature of Mickey, another mouse whose nose temperature was found it to be lower than his internal body temperature. These students take pity on Mickey and make him an orange windbreaker to wear.  Another unfortunate mouse was captured by a student and placed in a cage with a lizard that was smaller than the mouse.  The students left for Christmas break and the thermostat was set very low allowing the room to cool.  During this break in the cool cage, the mouse and lizard were not fed so the only thing available to them was water.