Bruce Waldman, Professor

Behavioral Ecology, Conservation Biology, Disease Ecology, Evolution.

Ph.D., 1983, Cornell University

Phone: 405-744-1715


Lab website


Specific Interests

1. Behavioral ecology and evolution
   • Altruism and social cooperation 
   • Mate choice
   • Animal communication
2. Molecular ecology
   • Genetic variation and population structure
   • Inbreeding avoidance and optimal outbreeding
3. Conservation biology
   • Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population decline
   • Captive management strategies
   • Identification of cryptic species
4. Immune system evolution, ecology and behavior
   • Innate and adaptive immunity to novel pathogens
   • Balancing selection for MHC variation
   • MHC-based kin recognition 



Selected Publications

  • O’Hanlon, S.J, Rieux, A., Farrer, R.A., Rosa, G.M., Waldman, B., et al. 2018. Recent Asian origin of chytrid fungi causing global amphibian declines. Science 360: 621-627.
  • Bataille, A., Lee-Cruz, L., Tripathi, B., and Waldman, B. 2017. Skin bacterial community reorganization following metamorphosis of the fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis). Microbial Ecology 75: 505-514.
  • Fu, M. and Waldman, B. 2017. Major histocompatibility complex variation and the evolution of resistance to amphibian chytridiomycosis. Immunogenetics 69: 529-536.
  • Didinger, C., Eimes, J.A., Lillie, M., and Waldman, B. 2017. Multiple major histocompatibility complex class I genes in Asian anurans: ontogeny and phylogeny. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 70: 69-79.
  • Kosch, T.A., Bataille, A., Didinger, C., Eimes, J.A., Rodríguez-Brenes, S., Ryan, M.J., and Waldman, B. 2016. Major histocompatibility complex selection dynamics in pathogen-infected túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) populations. Biology Letters 12: 20160345.
  • Fong, J.J., Li, P.-P., Yang, B.-T., Zhou, Z.Y., Leache, A.D., Min, M.S., and Waldman, B. 2016. Influence of geology and human activity on the genetic structure and demography of the Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 97: 69-75.
  • An, D. and Waldman, B. 2016. Enhanced call effort in Japanese tree frogs infected by amphibian chytrid fungus. Biology Letters 12: 20160018.
  • Waldman, B., 2016. Chemical communication in archaic New Zealand frogs. In: Schulte, B.A., Ferkin, M.H., Goodwin, T.E. (eds). Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 13, Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 351-360.
  • Bataille, A., Lee-Cruz, L., Tripathi, B., Kim, H., and Waldman, B. 2016. Microbiome variation across amphibian skin regions: implications for chytridiomycosis mitigation efforts. Microbial Ecology 71: 221-232.
  • Garza, S. and Waldman, B., 2015. Kin discrimination in polyphenic salamander larvae: trade-offs between inclusive fitness and pathogen transmission. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 69: 1473-1481.
  • Fong, J.J., Cheng, T.L., Bataille, A., Pessier, A.P., Waldman, B., and Vredenburg, V.T. 2015. Early 1900s detection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Korean amphibians. PLoS One 10: e0115656.
  • Bataille, A., Cashins, S., Grogan L., Skerratt, L., Hunter, D., McFaddan, M., Scheele, B., Brannelly, L., Macris, A., Harlow, P., Bell, S., Berger, L., and Waldman, B. 2015. Susceptibility of amphibians to chytridiomycosis is associated with MHC class II conformation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 282: 20143127.
  • Shin, J., Bataille, A., Kosch, T.A., and Waldman, B. 2014. Swabbing often fails to detect amphibian chytridiomycosis under conditions of low infection load. PLoS One 9: e111091.
  • Song, U., Jun, H., Waldman, B., Roh, J., Kim, Y., Yi, J., Lee, E.J. 2013. Functional analyses of nanoparticle toxicity: a comparative study of the effects of TiO2 and Ag on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 93: 60-67.
  • Bataille, A., Fong, J.J., Cha, M., Wogan, G., Baek, H.J., Lee, H., Min, M.S., and Waldman, B. 2013. Genetic evidence for a high diversity and wide distribution of endemic strains of the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in wild Asian amphibians. Molecular Ecology 22: 4196-4209.
  • Villinger, J. and Waldman, B. 2012. Social discrimination by quantitative assessment of immunogenetic similarity. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 279: 4368-4374.